Single-page applications (SPAs) and multi-page applications (MPAs) are two different approaches to building web applications, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. We will explore the differences between the two. 

Single-page applications (SPAs):

A single-page application (SPA) is a type of web application that initially loads a single HTML page and then dynamically updates the content as users interact without needing to load entirely new pages from the server. 

This approach provides a faster and more responsive user experience by minimising page reloads and providing seamless transitions between different application sections. SPAs are well-suited for highly interactive and responsive web applications.

One page, dynamic content

SPAs load a single HTML page and dynamically update content as the user interacts with the application; they use JavaScript to render content without requiring full-page reloads. Simply put, content changes based on data, user experiences and preferences. 


  • Increased relevancy – Presenting relevant offers is crucial; updating pages based on their personal preferences provides a higher customer satisfaction rate, decreasing bounce rate and increasing conversions. 
  • Provide personalised experiences – Trust and credibility can be increased by providing personalised experiences through dynamic content. 
  • Fast and efficient – Dynamic content loads much faster than static, providing a seamless experience for users. 

Improved user experience

SPAs are known for providing a faster and more responsive user experience compared to traditional multi-page applications (MPAs), so they are used more often. This enhanced speed and responsiveness are primarily due to how SPAs handle data loading and content updates. In summary, they provide a smoother and faster user experience by minimising the need for page refreshes, resulting in quicker response times. 

A staggering 47% of users will click off a site if it takes more than 2 seconds to load, which is why SPA’s provide so many benefits. 


  • Increased customer satisfaction – A site loading within 1 second has a 3x higher conversion rate than a site that takes 5 seconds to load. 
  • Reduced customer churn – A faster, more responsive site will reduce the amount of customers who don’t wish to return. 

Client-side routing

Client-side routing allows your app to update the URL by clicking links – without making another request. To summarise, a user can click a link on a webpage, which is then directed to a new page with a unique URL and different content. 


  • Reduced initial load time – Client-side routing allows you to use smart techniques that make web pages load faster. It means you only load the code you need for the page you’re looking at, making things quicker and better for users.
  • Better user experience – Animations and transitions can be easily implemented when switching between different components. 

SPAs typically use client-side routing to navigate between different views or sections of the application, which can be faster but also introduces some SEO challenges. Many search engine crawlers do not administer JavaScript code when indexing web pages, meaning they will not see the fully rendered page, affecting SEO. 

Not SEO-friendly

SPAs can be less SEO-friendly by default, as search engine crawlers might need to execute JavaScript. Those who are building single-page applications must have good experience in SEO for them to work successfully, which is why they tend not to be SEO-friendly for the majority.

There are techniques to make SPAs more search engine-friendly:

  • Server-side rendering (SSR) – Regardless of whether the crawler runs JavaScript, SSR helps to make your page search engine crawler-friendly. 
  • Meta tags – Title, descriptions, slug, etc should be rendered directly into the page’s source code. 
  • Internal linking – SEO loves internal links, which enables efficient crawling. All internal linking must be embedded with the link <a> tags in the source code as opposed to JavaScript on click events. 


Some familiar examples of single-page applications include:

  • Gmail – Users don’t need to refresh their page to update their inboxes; this is done automatically.
  • Grammarly – With Vue, this app offers live grammar help right in your web browser and sometimes in other apps.
  • Slack – The messaging platform that works with channels uses ReactJS for its web version, which helps messages come in real-time on a single page faster. 

Multi-page applications (MPAs):

A multi-page application (MPA) is a traditional web application with a separate HTML page representing each view or page. Users navigate between these pages by clicking links or buttons that trigger full-page reloads. 

MPAs are more straightforward in structure but can result in slower user experiences due to frequent page refreshes. They are well-suited for content-heavy websites and applications that do not require extensive client-side interactivity.



MPAs are generally more SEO-friendly, as search engine crawlers can easily index individual pages. MPAs are considered more SEO-friendly because each page in an MPA has its own distinct URL, making it easier for search engines to index, understand, and rank the content. This clear URL structure, combined with traditional navigation, helps search engine crawlers efficiently navigate and assess the website’s content.


  • Visibility – SEO-friendly websites and content are more likely to appear in search engine results. This increased visibility can lead to more organic (non-paid) traffic, which is valuable for businesses and websites.
  • Traffic quality: SEO can help attract targeted, high-quality traffic more likely to convert into customers, subscribers, or engaged users, resulting in better user experiences and higher conversion rates.
  • Credibility – Websites that rank well in search engine results often appear more credible and trustworthy to users, enhancing a brand’s reputation and authority in its industry.

Simpler development

In some cases, MPAs can be simpler to develop as they often involve less complex client-side JavaScript code, where the server handles most of the rendering. MPAs are generally simpler to develop due to their straightforward structure, well-known development practices, simplified routing, and reduced JavaScript and state management complexity.


  • Faster development – Simpler development means that creating, testing, and launching MPA-based projects is generally quicker. This can be especially advantageous when you have tight deadlines or want to market a product or website rapidly.
  • Lower development costs – Faster development often results in lower development costs, which is particularly important for businesses and organisations with limited budgets or cost constraints.
  • Easier maintenance – Simpler code and structure simplify ongoing maintenance and updates, leading to fewer bugs, quicker troubleshooting, and easier enhancements.

Slower user experience

MPAs can provide a slower user experience due to full-page reloads, especially when navigating between pages. With users having high expectations, MPAs can feel less responsive when users expect quick interactions and instant feedback, such as in real-time applications or highly interactive websites. 

Reasons why MPA’s can provide a slower user experience:

  • Page reloads – In MPAs, when users navigate to different sections or pages, the entire web page needs to be reloaded from the server. This process involves downloading HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and other assets, leading to noticeable page loading delays. In contrast, SPAs only load the necessary content, avoiding these reloads.
  • Slower initial loads – The initial load time for MPAs can be slower because it involves downloading and rendering the entire HTML page. In contrast, SPAs may initially load faster due to their minimal HTML shell, and then they fetch content as needed in the background. This can be damaging to conversion rates, with 40% of users abandoning a website if a page doesn’t load within 3 seconds, 
  • Limited interactivity – MPAs often have limited client-side interactivity. User interactions, such as submitting forms or loading new content, may result in full-page reloads, interrupting the user’s flow and making the experience less seamless.

Server-side routing

Navigation in MPAs is often handled through server-side routing, which can be less flexible for some applications. Server-side routing is often considered less flexible for multi-page applications (MPAs) because it has limitations that can impact how an MPA functions. 

Some reasons why SSR can be less flexible for some applications:

  • Server load –  Server-side routing significantly loads the server because it generates and delivers complete HTML pages for every user interaction. This can strain server resources and affect scalability.
  • Limited Offline Functionality – Server-side routing often lacks the offline functionality some modern web applications require. It doesn’t leverage client-side caching and storage for offline access.
  • Performance Impact – Server-side rendering can have a performance impact, particularly for content-heavy pages or applications that require dynamic data updates, leading to slower load times and responsiveness.


Some familiar examples of single-page applications include:

  • Traditional blogs
  • E-commerce websites
  • News websites 

Which to choose?

The choice between SPAs and MPAs depends on your project’s specific requirements and goals. Here are some considerations:

SPAs are suitable for complex, interactive web applications that require a fast, responsive user experience and can overcome SEO challenges with proper techniques.

MPAs are appropriate for content-heavy websites, where SEO is a significant concern, and for projects that don’t require extensive client-side interactivity.

In some cases, a hybrid approach can be used, where parts of a website are built as SPAs while other parts remain traditional MPAs. Ultimately, the choice should be based on the user experience, project complexity, and your development team’s expertise.


Can I mix SPA and MPA features in a single application?

 Yes, it’s possible to use elements of both SPAs and MPAs in a hybrid application. This approach, known as “progressive enhancement,” allows you to leverage the strengths of each depending on the specific requirements of different sections of your application.

Are there any tools or frameworks that can help build SPAs or MPAs?

Yes, various JavaScript frameworks and libraries, such as React, Angular, and Vue.js, facilitate the development of both SPAs and MPAs.

What considerations should I consider for user experience when choosing between SPAs and MPAs?

When deciding between SPAs and MPAs, consider factors like load times, navigation flow, interactivity, content structure, and user expectations to ensure the chosen architecture aligns with your user experience goals.


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